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Domains and DNS

Most of us already be knowing the use of DNS, i.e. for resolving names to IP address
on which all kind of network is based. Here this article explains the basics of DNS
and then takes you further to understand the internet and web hosting.
 
DNS  : Used to resolve names into IP address.
 
Now let’s see how it works
 
Every computer connected to internet has these IP Addresses assigned.
 
IP Address for the machine
Gateway IP Address
DNS Server IP Address.
 
 
Now our main target is the last one, i.e. DNS
Whenever our machine wants to resolve any name, it contacts the DNS server (which
is provided by the ISP) for the name resolution i.e. IP address for the name.
 
For example. In the browser when you type www.example.com  it will go to the DNS
for name resolution, after it is resolved the IP address is returned to the computer.
 
When  the request comes to the DNS server, it will look into its own cache
(in the server itself) if it has any information about the domain name, if it doesn't have
any information it would start its journey by going to the Root Name Server
 
 
Root Name Server : Is again a DNS server that answers the request for the dns
names and redirects the request to the tld of the requested name.
 
tld stands for Top-Level-Domain, these are the .net, .com, .org, .in, etc
 
For example: If request comes for www.padipa.net, it looks for the last extension
Here which is .net, then redirects the request to .net DNS server.
 
Now the .net DNS server then redirects to the DNS server that are actually hosts
The  zone for the requested domain.
 
For example : when the request comes to .net tld DNS server, it checks the domain name
Here  which is padipa, then gives away the entry for the name server for that domain
The name server are the DNS server that host the zone file for the domain, i.e all the
information about the hosts in that domain.
 
For example : After the request comes to the specified name server, it looks into the
zone file for the host  www (of the www.padipa.net) and provides the IP address of the
webserver hosting the website of www.padipa.net.
 
After the IP address is retrieved by the requesting computer it contacts the web server
asking for the web files and gets it.
 
 
 
Now coming to web hosting industries.
 
 
Lets start with as example,
 
Suppose you want host own domain  say jumanji.com  you want a web-site by
 that name www.jumanji.com  and your own mail domain i.e  your own email address
myname@jumanji.com
 
Where do you start ?
There are two things involved to meet the above requirement,
1) Domain Registration
2) Hosting
 
Domain Registration :  You have to register your domain with a domain registrar,
Domain registrars are companies that have links with the tld DNS server, once you
have registered your domain  with the domain registrar's they would put your domain
record onto the tld DNS servers, so that your domain is available for  Internet access.
Normally for the domain to reflect over the internet tld DNS server it takes max of
24 hours.
 
Hosting : You have to contact web hosting provider,  they would host your DNS zone,
web server, mail server as to meet our specified requirements.
 
You will get a server that is accessible over internet, now the IP address of the server
that host the DNS  zone is the name server for you, you would put this information in
Domain registration form  which you have done in the 1st part.

Now the server which you got is to be configured with web server, mail server,
software. (which is normally provided by the web hosting provider)
 
Now once your web server is configured for your, you would be given FTP login
details so that you could upload your web-sites files onto to your web server.

Images speak thousand words, check the below image for more clarification.
 
 
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